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Billing Ovulation Method References:

Published Literature
1. Billings, E.L. Westmore, A. The Billings Method, Anne O’Donovan Pty Ltd, Melbourne. First published1980. New and Revised Editions 1982-2003
2. Billings, E.L. Billings, J.J. Catarinich, M. The Billings Atlas of the Ovulation Method, 5th Edition, 1989, Ovulation Method Research & Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne. Appendices on: The Cervix, The Vagina and Fertility, Odeblad, E. The Scientific Basis of the Ovulation Method. Brown, J.B.
3. Billings, E.L. Billings, J.J. Teaching the Billings Method Part 2. Variations of the Cycle and Reproductive Health Ovulation Method Research & Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne 1997
4. Billings, E.L. Teaching the Billings Method Part 1 Third Edition 2001, Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia.
5. Billings, J.J. The Ovulation Method, Ovulation Method Research & Reference Centre, Melbourne, 1964. New and Revised Editions 1964-1983
6. Billings, J.J. The Billings Ovulation Method in China. Ovulation Method Research & Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne 2003
7. Brown, J. B. Studies on Human Reproduction, Ovarian Activity and Fertility and the Billings Ovulation Method, Ovulation Method Research & Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne 2002
8. Proceedings of International Conference of Ovulation Method, Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre, Melbourne, 1978


Published Articles
9. Billings, E.L. Billings, J.J. Brown, J.B. Burger, H.G. “Symptoms and Hormonal Changes accompanying Ovulation”. Lancet 1:282-4, 1972
10. Billings, E.L. Study of Pre-Menopausal Women, Report to Workshop of the Ovulation Method, Sydney, 1973
11. Brown, J.B. “Urinary Excretion of Oestrogen During Pregnancy, Lacation and the Re-establishment of Menstruation”, Lancet, 1:704, 1956
12. Brown, J.B. Harrisson, P. Smith, M.A. “A Study of Returning Fertility After Childbirth, During Lactation, by Measurement of Urinary Oestrogen and Pregnanediol Excretion and Cervical Mucus Production”. J. Biosoc. Sci.
Suppl.9:5, 1985


Hormone support of Billings Ovulation Method through Ovarian Monitor
13. Brown, J.B. Harrisson, P. Smith, M.A. Burger, H.G. Correlation between the mucus symptoms and the hormonal markers of fertility throughout reproductive life. Melbourne Monograph, Ovulation Method Research &
Reference Centre of Australia, 1981.
14. Brown, J.B. Blackwell, L.F. Cox, R. I. Holmes, J. Smith, M.A. Chemical and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay methods for the measurement of estrogens and pregnanediol and their glucuronides in urine. Prog. Biol. Clin. Res. 1988:285: 119-38
15. Brown, J.B. Blackwell, L.F. “Anovulatory Cycles”, Ovarian Monitor Instruction Manual, 18-20, Dept Obs. & Gyn., University of Melbourne, Australia, 1989.
16. Brown, J.B. Blackwell, L.F. Holmes, J. Smyth, K. New Assays for Identifying the Fertile Period. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics – Supplement 1, 111-28, 1989
17. Brown, J.B., Holmes J. Barker G. Use of the Home Ovarian Monitor in Pregnancy Avoidance. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 105. 2008-11, 1991
18. Blackwell, L.F. Brown, J.B. Application of Time-series Analysis for the Recognition of Increases in Urinary Estrogens as Markers for the Beginning of the Potentially Fertile Period. Steroids 57, 554-62, 1992
19. Blackwell, L.F. Brown, J.B. Cooke, D.G. Definition of the Potentially Fertile period from Urinary Steroid Excretion Rates. Part II. A Threshold Value for Pregnanediol Glucudonide as a marker to the end of the Potentially Fertile Period in the Human Menstrual Cycle. Steroids 63, 5-13, 1998
20. Blackwell, L.F. Brown, J.B. Vigil, P. Gross, B. Sufi, S. d’Argangues, C. Hormonal Monitoring of Ovarian Activity using the Ovarian Monitor. Part 1. Validation of Home and Laboratory Results obtained during Ovulatory
Cycles by Comparison with Radio Immunoassay. (A World Health Organisation Study). Steroids. (In Press)
21. Cavero, C. Using an Ovarian Monitor as an adjunct to Natural Family Planning. Journal of Nurse Midwifery 40, 269-76. 1995
22. Thornton, S.J. Pepperell, R.J. Brown, J.B. Home monitoring of gonadotrophin ovulation induction using the Ovarian Monitor. Fertility and Sterility 1990:54 1076-82


Cervical research in support of Billings Ovulation Method
23. Menarguez, M. Studies on cervical mucus with scanning electron microscopy, Thesis, Univ. Murcia, Spain 1998
24. Menarguez, M. Pastor, L.M. Odeblad, E. Morphological characterization of different human cervical mucus types using light and scanning electron microscopy. Human Reprod., 18(9) 1782-1789 2003
25. Odeblad, E. The Physics of the Cervical Mucus, Acta Obst. Gyn. Scand. 38, Suppl. 1, 44-58, 1959
26. Odeblad, E. Discussion to the Preceeding Paper, Acta Obst. Gyn. Scand. 39, Suppl. 1, 126-127, 1959
27. Odeblad, E. Micro-NMR in high permanent magnetic fields, Acta Obst. Gyn. Scand. 45, Suppl. 2, 1966
28. Odeblad, E. Biophysical investigations in oral contraception, Acta Obst. Gyn. Scand. 47, Suppl 8, 7-19, 1968
29. Odeblad, E. Physical properties of cervical mucus. In Mucus in Health and Disease. Adv. Med. Biol. 89, 1977, ed. Elstein, M. & Parke, V., p. 217-225
30. Odeblad, E. In Adv.in Reg. Nat. Fert. Malaga 1994: 88-91
31. Odeblad, E. The Discovery of Different Types of Cervical Mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method, Bulletin Natural Family Planning Council of Victoria V.21 (3), 1994
32. Odeblad, E. Cervical Mucus and their Functions, Irish College Physicians and Surgeons 26: 27, 1997
33. Odeblad, E. Investigations on the Physiological Basis for Fertility Awareness, Bulletin Natural Family Planning Council of Victoria V. 29 (1) 2-11, 2002

Trials of Billings Ovulation Method
34. Weissman, M.C. Foliaki, J. Billings, E.L. Billings, J.J. “A Trial of the Ovulation Method of family planning in Tonga”, Lancet, 813-16, 14 October, 1972
35. World Health Organisation, Task Force on Methods for the Determination of the Fertile Period, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, “Prospective Multicentre Trial of the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning. I. The Teaching Phase”, Fertility and Sterility, 36, 152, 1981
36. World Health Organisation, “Prospective Multicentre Trial of the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning II. The Effectiveness Phase”, Fertility and Sterility, 36, 591, 1981
37. World Health Organisation, “Prospective Multicentre Trial of the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning III. Characteristics of the Menstrual Cycle and of the Fertile Phase”, Fertility and Sterility, 40, 773, 1983
38. World Health Organisation, “Prospective Multicentre Trial of the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning IV. The Outcome of Pregnancy”, Fertility and Sterility, 41, 593,1984
39. Indian Council of Medical Research, Optimism with Natural Family Planning for Fertility Regulation in India, Preliminary Report of a Five-state study of the Billings Ovulation Method in India, 1986 to 1988.
40. Thapa, S. Wonga, M.V. Lampe, P.G. Pietojo, H. Soejoenoes, A. “Efficacy of Three Variations of Periodic Abstinence for Family Planning in Indonesia”, Studies in Family Planning, 21: 327-34, 1990.
41. Qian, Shao-Zhen. Zhang, De-Wei. Zuo, Huai-Zhi. Lu, Ren-Kang. Peng, Lin. He, Chang-Hai. Jiangsu Family Health Institute, China. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Natural Fertility Regulation Programme in China. Reproduction and Contraception (English Edition) in press 2000.


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Updated:12/31/06

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