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Billing Ovulation Method References:
1. Billings, E.L.
Westmore, A. The Billings Method, Anne O’Donovan Pty Ltd,
Melbourne. First published1980. New and Revised Editions
2. Billings, E.L. Billings, J.J. Catarinich, M. The Billings
Atlas of the Ovulation Method, 5th Edition, 1989, Ovulation
Method Research & Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne.
Appendices on: The Cervix, The Vagina and Fertility, Odeblad, E.
The Scientific Basis of the Ovulation Method. Brown, J.B.
3. Billings, E.L. Billings, J.J. Teaching the Billings Method
Part 2. Variations of the Cycle and Reproductive Health
Ovulation Method Research & Reference Centre of Australia,
4. Billings, E.L. Teaching the Billings Method Part 1 Third
Edition 2001, Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of
5. Billings, J.J. The Ovulation Method, Ovulation Method
Research & Reference Centre, Melbourne, 1964. New and Revised
6. Billings, J.J. The Billings Ovulation Method in China.
Ovulation Method Research & Reference Centre of Australia,
7. Brown, J. B. Studies on Human Reproduction, Ovarian Activity
and Fertility and the Billings Ovulation Method, Ovulation
Method Research & Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne 2002
8. Proceedings of International Conference of Ovulation Method,
Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre, Melbourne, 1978
9. Billings, E.L.
Billings, J.J. Brown, J.B. Burger, H.G. “Symptoms and Hormonal
Changes accompanying Ovulation”. Lancet 1:282-4, 1972
10. Billings, E.L. Study of Pre-Menopausal Women, Report to
Workshop of the Ovulation Method, Sydney, 1973
11. Brown, J.B. “Urinary Excretion of Oestrogen During
Pregnancy, Lacation and the Re-establishment of Menstruation”,
Lancet, 1:704, 1956
12. Brown, J.B. Harrisson, P. Smith, M.A. “A Study of Returning
Fertility After Childbirth, During Lactation, by Measurement of
Urinary Oestrogen and Pregnanediol Excretion and Cervical Mucus
Production”. J. Biosoc. Sci.
Hormone support of Billings
Ovulation Method through Ovarian Monitor
13. Brown, J.B.
Harrisson, P. Smith, M.A. Burger, H.G. Correlation between the
mucus symptoms and the hormonal markers of fertility throughout
reproductive life. Melbourne Monograph, Ovulation Method
Reference Centre of Australia, 1981.
14. Brown, J.B. Blackwell, L.F. Cox, R. I. Holmes, J. Smith,
M.A. Chemical and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay methods for the
measurement of estrogens and pregnanediol and their glucuronides
in urine. Prog. Biol. Clin. Res. 1988:285: 119-38
15. Brown, J.B. Blackwell, L.F. “Anovulatory Cycles”, Ovarian
Monitor Instruction Manual, 18-20, Dept Obs. & Gyn., University
of Melbourne, Australia, 1989.
16. Brown, J.B. Blackwell, L.F. Holmes, J. Smyth, K. New Assays
for Identifying the Fertile Period. International Journal of
Gynecology and Obstetrics – Supplement 1, 111-28, 1989
17. Brown, J.B., Holmes J. Barker G. Use of the Home Ovarian
Monitor in Pregnancy Avoidance. American Journal of Obstetrics
and Gynecology 105. 2008-11, 1991
18. Blackwell, L.F. Brown, J.B. Application of Time-series
Analysis for the Recognition of Increases in Urinary Estrogens
as Markers for the Beginning of the Potentially Fertile Period.
Steroids 57, 554-62, 1992
19. Blackwell, L.F. Brown, J.B. Cooke, D.G. Definition of the
Potentially Fertile period from Urinary Steroid Excretion Rates.
Part II. A Threshold Value for Pregnanediol Glucudonide as a
marker to the end of the Potentially Fertile Period in the Human
Menstrual Cycle. Steroids 63, 5-13, 1998
20. Blackwell, L.F. Brown, J.B. Vigil, P. Gross, B. Sufi, S.
d’Argangues, C. Hormonal Monitoring of Ovarian Activity using
the Ovarian Monitor. Part 1. Validation of Home and Laboratory
Results obtained during Ovulatory
Cycles by Comparison with Radio Immunoassay. (A World Health
Organisation Study). Steroids. (In Press)
21. Cavero, C. Using an Ovarian Monitor as an adjunct to Natural
Family Planning. Journal of Nurse Midwifery 40, 269-76. 1995
22. Thornton, S.J. Pepperell, R.J. Brown, J.B. Home monitoring
of gonadotrophin ovulation induction using the Ovarian Monitor.
Fertility and Sterility 1990:54 1076-82
Cervical research in support
of Billings Ovulation Method
23. Menarguez, M.
Studies on cervical mucus with scanning electron microscopy,
Thesis, Univ. Murcia, Spain 1998
24. Menarguez, M. Pastor, L.M. Odeblad, E. Morphological
characterization of different human cervical mucus types using
light and scanning electron microscopy. Human Reprod., 18(9)
25. Odeblad, E. The Physics of the Cervical Mucus, Acta Obst.
Gyn. Scand. 38, Suppl. 1, 44-58, 1959
26. Odeblad, E. Discussion to the Preceeding Paper, Acta Obst.
Gyn. Scand. 39, Suppl. 1, 126-127, 1959
27. Odeblad, E. Micro-NMR in high permanent magnetic fields,
Acta Obst. Gyn. Scand. 45, Suppl. 2, 1966
28. Odeblad, E. Biophysical investigations in oral
contraception, Acta Obst. Gyn. Scand. 47, Suppl 8, 7-19, 1968
29. Odeblad, E. Physical properties of cervical mucus. In Mucus
in Health and Disease. Adv. Med. Biol. 89, 1977, ed. Elstein, M.
& Parke, V., p. 217-225
30. Odeblad, E. In Adv.in Reg. Nat. Fert. Malaga 1994: 88-91
31. Odeblad, E. The Discovery of Different Types of Cervical
Mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method, Bulletin Natural Family
Planning Council of Victoria V.21 (3), 1994
32. Odeblad, E. Cervical Mucus and their Functions, Irish
College Physicians and Surgeons 26: 27, 1997
33. Odeblad, E. Investigations on the Physiological Basis for
Fertility Awareness, Bulletin Natural Family Planning Council of
Victoria V. 29 (1) 2-11, 2002
Trials of Billings Ovulation
34. Weissman, M.C.
Foliaki, J. Billings, E.L. Billings, J.J. “A Trial of the
Ovulation Method of family planning in Tonga”, Lancet, 813-16,
14 October, 1972
35. World Health Organisation, Task Force on Methods for the
Determination of the Fertile Period, Special Programme of
Research, Development and Research Training in Human
Reproduction, “Prospective Multicentre Trial of the Ovulation
Method of Natural Family Planning. I. The Teaching Phase”,
Fertility and Sterility, 36, 152, 1981
36. World Health Organisation, “Prospective Multicentre Trial of
the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning II. The
Effectiveness Phase”, Fertility and Sterility, 36, 591, 1981
37. World Health Organisation, “Prospective Multicentre Trial of
the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning III.
Characteristics of the Menstrual Cycle and of the Fertile
Phase”, Fertility and Sterility, 40, 773, 1983
38. World Health Organisation, “Prospective Multicentre Trial of
the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning IV. The Outcome
of Pregnancy”, Fertility and Sterility, 41, 593,1984
39. Indian Council of Medical Research, Optimism with Natural
Family Planning for Fertility Regulation in India, Preliminary
Report of a Five-state study of the Billings Ovulation Method in
India, 1986 to 1988.
40. Thapa, S. Wonga, M.V. Lampe, P.G. Pietojo, H. Soejoenoes, A.
“Efficacy of Three Variations of Periodic Abstinence for Family
Planning in Indonesia”, Studies in Family Planning, 21: 327-34,
41. Qian, Shao-Zhen. Zhang, De-Wei. Zuo, Huai-Zhi. Lu, Ren-Kang.
Peng, Lin. He, Chang-Hai. Jiangsu Family Health Institute,
China. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Natural Fertility
Regulation Programme in China. Reproduction and Contraception
(English Edition) in press 2000.
The Natural Family
Planning Association - Ontario is affiliated with
the World Organization Ovulation Method Billings
(WOOMB) Canada and WOOMB International.